Fundamentals of Corporate Finance

23 February 2022


Corporate finance is concerned with a corporation's capital structure, including its funding and the activities taken by management to raise the company's worth. It is closely tied to business decisions that have a monetary and financial impact. It serves as a link between the capital market and the corporation. Corporate finance encompasses the tools and analyses used to prioritise and allocate financial resources. In addition to capital investments, corporate finance is involved with cash flow management, accounting, financial statement preparation, and taxation. The ultimate goal of corporate finance is to optimise a company's value through resource planning and implementation while balancing risk and profitability. 


The numerous techniques of raising capital for the firm are included in the many types of corporate finance. These are generally classified to ensure that the firm finds the optimal fit. The two sections that include numerous operations related to obtaining capital for the firm are short-term and long-term.

  1. Short term- Short-term corporate finance is a sort of financing that provides services to a firm for a limited time. Short-term corporate financing has a maximum duration of a few months or a full year. Other sub-activities are included in short-term corporate are:

  1. Financial Lease, 
  2. Trade Credit,
  3. Accrual Accounts
  4. Long Term- Long-term corporate finance, as the name implies, refers to corporate financial support that are stretched out over a year or more. With minimal interest rates that may be repaid as monthly interest payments, the time span tends to get longer. Long-term corporate finance encompasses a wide range of operations, including:

  1. Debentures,
  2. Bank Loan,
  3. Floatation


To understand the fundamentals of corporate finance, it is necessary to start from the beginning. Here are the 3 pillars of corporate finance to help comprehend the measures that management takes to prioritise increasing the company's worth.

  1. Investments and Capital Budgeting

Planning where to position the company's long-term capital assets in order to earn the maximum risk-adjusted returns is part of investing and capital budgeting. This comprises mostly of determining whether or not to follow an investment opportunity, which is performed through rigorous financial study.

A corporation may identify capital expenditures, predict cash flows from proposed capital projects, compare planned investments to expected income, and determine which projects to include in the capital budget by utilising financial accounting techniques. Capital budgeting assists financial decision-makers in making educated financial decisions for projects that involve a big capital expenditure and are expected to last a year or more. Projects of this type may include:

  • Investing in new equipment, technology and buildings
  • Upgrading and maintaining current technology and equipment
  • completing existing building renovation projects
  • Increasing their workforce
  • Creating new goods
  • Developing new markets

  1. Capital Financing

This key function includes deciding how to best finance the capital investments (described above) using the company's stock, debt, or a combination of the two. While making consistent selections, the value of this ideal blend for capital structure is also kept in mind. After determining the best financing mix to construct the capital structure, the principles assist in putting it in place for the long or short term. 

Balancing the two sources of finance (equity and debt) should be carefully handled since having too much debt increases the danger of repayment default, whilst relying too heavily on equity dilutes earnings and value for original investors. 

  1. Dividend and Return of Capital

This activity involves corporate executives to determine whether to keep a company's surplus earnings for future investments and operational needs, or to distribute them to shareholders in the form of dividends or share buybacks. It might choose to use the extra income to pay off debts or to develop its business. The choice must be made with the highest value of the company in mind. Dividend choices are handled differently by private and public businesses. This is frequently the best source of funding since it does not incur more loans and does not dilute the value of equity by issuing more shares.


Corporate financing is essential in any organisation. Every organisation, regardless of size or kind of business activities, strives to simplify its corporate financing arm for maximum wealth distribution and return production. The 3 concepts mentioned above form the core of corporate finance. 


The content of this article is for information purpose only and does not constitute advice or a legal opinion and are personal views of the author. It is based upon relevant law and/or facts available at that point of time and prepared with due accuracy & reliability. Readers are requested to check and refer to relevant provisions of statute, latest judicial pronouncements, circulars, clarifications etc before acting on the basis of the above write up. The possibility of other views on the subject matter cannot be ruled out. By the use of the said information, you agree that the Author / Treelife Consulting is not responsible or liable in any manner for the authenticity, accuracy, completeness, errors or any kind of omissions in this piece of information for any action taken thereof.

Download Startup Guide
A guide with complete lifecycle of startup

Treelife Ventures Services Private Limited.
All Rights Reserved. © 2022.