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02 Jul 2024

Fundamentals of Corporate Finance

02 Jul 2024
Fundamentals of Corporate Finance

Corporate finance is a crucial component of any business’s success, as it encompasses the management of a company’s capital structure and funding activities to enhance its value. Corporate finance is closely linked to business decisions that have a financial and monetary impact, serving as a bridge between the capital market and the corporation. In addition to capital investments, corporate finance is involved with cash flow management, accounting, financial statement preparation, and taxation. The ultimate goal of corporate finance is to optimise a company’s value through resource planning and implementation while balancing risk and profitability.

In this article, we will explore the various types of corporate finance and the three pillars that serve as the foundation for this field.



Types of corporate finance

Corporate finance involves numerous techniques to raise capital for a company, which are classified into short-term and long-term financing options.

Short-term corporate finance provides services to a firm for a limited time, usually lasting a few months to a year. This type of financing includes financial lease, trade credit, and accrual accounts.

Long-term corporate finance refers to financial support that is stretched out over a year or more, with minimal interest rates that can be repaid through monthly interest payments. Examples of long-term corporate finance include debentures, bank loans, and flotation.



Three pillars of corporate finance

To understand the fundamentals of corporate finance, it is necessary to understand the three pillars that serve as its foundation.

1. Investments and Capital Budgeting:

This pillar involves planning where to position a company’s long-term capital assets to earn the maximum risk-adjusted returns. This includes determining whether or not to pursue an investment opportunity through rigorous financial analysis. Capital budgeting helps financial decision-makers make educated decisions for projects that involve significant capital expenditures and are expected to last a year or more. Projects of this type may include :

  • Investing in new equipment, technology and buildings
  • Upgrading and maintaining current technology and equipment
  • completing existing building renovation projects
  • Increasing their workforce
  • Creating new goods
  • Developing new markets

2. Capital Financing:

This pillar involves deciding how to finance the capital investments using the company’s stock, debt, or a combination of the two. The value of the ideal blend for the capital structure is kept in mind while making consistent selections. After determining the best financing mix, the principles assist in putting it in place for the long or short term.

3. Dividend and Return of Capital:

This pillar involves determining whether to keep a company’s surplus earnings for future investments and operational needs or to distribute them to shareholders in the form of dividends or share buybacks. The decision must be made with the highest value of the company in mind. Private and public businesses handle dividend choices differently.




1. Why is corporate finance important for business?  Corporate finance is important as it helps businesses optimize financial resources, make informed decisions, and maximize shareholder value.

2. How does financial planning and analysis impact corporate finance?  Financial planning and analysis help companies assess their financial health, make informed decisions, and achieve their financial objectives.

3. What is the role of risk management in corporate finance?  Risk management identifies and mitigates potential financial risks, protecting a company’s assets and ensuring stability.

4. How does corporate finance help maximize shareholder value?  Corporate finance strategies optimize financial decisions and resource allocation to generate higher returns for shareholders.


Corporate financing is critical in any organization, as it helps to maximise wealth distribution and return production. The three pillars mentioned above form the core of corporate finance. By understanding these pillars and the various types of corporate finance, businesses can make informed decisions to optimize their value through resource planning and implementation while balancing risk and profitability.

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Last updated on
Jul 02, 2024, 2:34pm


The content of this article is for information purpose only and does not constitute advice or a legal opinion and are personal views of the author. It is based upon relevant law and/or facts available at that point of time and prepared with due accuracy & reliability. Readers are requested to check and refer to relevant provisions of statute, latest judicial pronouncements, circulars, clarifications etc. before acting on the basis of the above write up. The possibility of other views on the subject matter cannot be ruled out. By the use of the said information, you agree that the Author / Treelife is not responsible or liable in any manner for the authenticity, accuracy, completeness, errors or any kind of omissions in this piece of information for any action taken thereof.

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