Critical Factors in Initial Public Offering (IPO) Outcomes: Lessons from Past IPOs
Navigating the complexities of an IPO is a pivotal moment for companies, with the potential for significant growth and capital increase. Companies aiming to transition from private to public spheres have encountered a variety of challenges, yet there have also been remarkable stories of triumph. In this article, we deep dive into the successes and challenges of previous public listings.
|What went wrong?
|When Zomato, India’s first unicorn to venture public, made its debut on the National Stock Exchange, its shares surged, opening at a staggering 52.63% premium. This catapulted the company’s market capitalisation beyond the INR 1 lakh crore mark. After a promising debut on the National Stock Exchange, Zomato’s shares took a significant hit, falling to a low of Rs 46 in July nearly 40 per cent down from its issue price of Rs 76. Such a decline moved closer to expert evaluations that pegged the company’s genuine share value at around Rs 41.
|Realistic valuations of companies planning to launch an IPOs are of paramount importance for both investors and the companies aiming to go public. Overvaluations might result in unrealistic expectations and potential future corrections, which could dent investor confidence. On the other hand, a firm grounded in its intrinsic value will likely offer more stability and transparency to its shareholders.
|Good governance and Transparency
|The case of OYO, a prominent hospitality company in India, serves as an example of the challenges that can arise when governance and transparency are perceived to be inadequate. OYO’s journey towards an IPO has been fraught with scrutiny, primarily due to concerns regarding its governance practices and the clarity of its business operations. Questions have been raised about the sustainability of its growth, the clarity of its revenue model, and the management’s decision-making processes. Legal disputes and questions about its asset-light business model have further compounded these concerns, leading to a delay in its IPO plans.
|Good governance and transparency are paramount in the complex process of launching an IPO, as they instill confidence among potential investors and ensure a fair and smooth transition to the public market. Good governance involves the establishment of robust internal controls, adherence to ethical standards, and accountability to all stakeholders, while transparency requires clear and honest communication about the company’s financial health, business model, and potential risks. For companies looking to go public, the lesson from OYO’s experience is clear – prioritize good governance and transparency, not just as a means to facilitate a successful IPO, but as a fundamental business practice. This commitment to ethical practices and clear communication is crucial for building trust with investors and laying the groundwork for long-term success in the public domain.
|What went right?
|The IPO of Avenue Supermarts Ltd, which operates the DMart chain of supermarkets in India, serves as an illustrative example. The company went public in March 2017, a period that was characterized by a strong bull market in India. The IPO was priced at INR 299 per share, and due to the positive market conditions and strong fundamentals of the company, it received an overwhelming response from investors. On its debut on the stock exchanges, the stock listed at INR 604, a 102% premium over its issue price. Investors who had participated in the IPO were rewarded with substantial gains, showcasing the importance of choosing the right time to invest in an IPO.
|Companies aspiring to go public should aim to initiate their IPO during a bullish market, where stock prices are climbing, and investor optimism is palpable. Moreover, a stable or rising interest rate environment is preferable for launching an IPO. During such periods, the financial markets are generally considered to be in a healthy state, inspiring confidence among investors. From the company’s perspective, strategically timing the IPO to align with favorable market conditions can significantly enhance the success of the public offering. It not only helps in maximizing the capital raised but also contributes to establishing a strong investor base and a positive market perception, which are vital for the company’s long-term growth and stability in the public domain.
Embarking on an IPO journey necessitates a careful balance of several critical elements to ensure success and sustainability in the public domain. Companies must prioritize realistic valuations, uphold the principles of good governance, effectively communicate their value proposition, and choose the right market conditions to launch their public offering. The examples of Zomato, Paytm, and others in the Indian context underscore the varying outcomes that can result from this complex process, demonstrating that while the rewards of a successful IPO can be substantial, the road to achieving it is fraught with challenges. Ultimately, for companies aiming to make a successful transition to the public markets, a combination of transparency, accountability, ethical decision-making, and strategic timing emerges as the indispensable formula for success.
Last Updated on: 8th December 2023, 05:52 pm
The content of this article is for information purpose only and does not constitute advice or a legal opinion and are personal views of the author. It is based upon relevant law and/or facts available at that point of time and prepared with due accuracy & reliability. Readers are requested to check and refer to relevant provisions of statute, latest judicial pronouncements, circulars, clarifications etc. before acting on the basis of the above write up. The possibility of other views on the subject matter cannot be ruled out. By the use of the said information, you agree that the Author / Treelife is not responsible or liable in any manner for the authenticity, accuracy, completeness, errors or any kind of omissions in this piece of information for any action taken thereof.