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05 Jul 2024

The Role of Large Language Models (LLMs) in the Legal and Financial Sectors

05 Jul 2024
The Role of Large Language Models (LLMs) in the Legal and Financial Sectors


Artificial Intelligence (AI), especially Large Language Models (LLMs) are transforming the legal and financial sectors. These models enhance efficiency, accuracy, and decision-making through advanced natural language processing (NLP) and text generation. LLMs are built on deep learning architectures and trained on vast datasets to understand, interpret, and generate human-like text and thereby support professionals by automating routine tasks. This article explores how LLMs are transforming both the legal and financial industries, their applications, benefits, challenges, and future implications. [1]


Understanding Large Language Models

LLMs are AI systems designed to understand, generate, and respond to human language in a manner that mimics human-like understanding and reasoning. These models are trained on vast amounts of textual data, allowing them to learn patterns, relationships, and nuances in language. Recent advancements have expanded the capabilities of LLMs beyond simple language understanding to complex tasks such as language generation, translation, summarization, and even dialogue. [2]


Applications of LLM in the Legal Sector

With these developments, LLMs have been given the challenge of revolutionizing the legal sector by offering advanced capabilities in natural language processing (NLP) and understanding legal texts. Here’s how LLMs are being applied in the legal sector, at relatively small scales (at present):

  • Automating Routine Tasks

LLMs are transforming legal practices by automating routine tasks such as document review, legal research, and case analysis. They can sift through extensive legal databases, extract relevant information from case law, statutes, and regulations, and provide summaries or insights that aid legal professionals in decision-making. [3]

  • Streamlining Contract Analysis and Due Diligence

In contract law and due diligence processes, LLMs streamline the analysis of contracts by extracting key terms, identifying risks, inconsistencies, or anomalies, and suggesting revisions based on predefined legal criteria, and also provide significant support contract management by analyzing contracts, extracting key points, and categorizing them based on legal issues, thereby saving time on administrative tasks. This reduces the time and effort required for contract review and enhances accuracy in identifying potential legal issues.

Moreover, LLMs assist in legal compliance by monitoring legislative updates, identifying pertinent legal developments, and providing insights to mitigate risks and ensure regulatory adherence. [4]

  • Compliance Monitoring and Regulatory Analysis

LLMs assist legal departments in compliance monitoring by analyzing regulatory texts, monitoring changes in laws and regulations, and ensuring adherence to compliance requirements. They facilitate the preparation of compliance reports, regulatory filings, and disclosures, thereby improving efficiency and reducing compliance-related risks. [5]


Case Studies and Examples for Legal Sector

Examples of successful integration of LLMs into legal practices include the use of AI-powered platforms for legal research and contract management by law firms and corporate legal departments. These platforms leverage LLMs to enhance productivity, accuracy, and decision-making capabilities in handling legal documents and regulatory requirements.

Some examples wherein LLMs have been opined on or even used by Indian Judiciary include:

  1. In 2023, the Delhi High Court issued a temporary injunction, commonly known as a “John Doe” order, prohibiting social media platforms, e-commerce websites, and individuals from using actor Anil Kapoor’s name, voice, image, or dialogue for commercial purposes without authorization. The Court specifically banned the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools to manipulate his image and the creation of GIFs for monetary gain. Additionally, the Court directed the Union Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology to block pornographic content that features altered images of the actor. [6]
  2. Since 2021, the Supreme Court has employed an AI-powered tool designed to process and organize information for judges’ consideration, though it does not influence their decision-making process. Another tool utilized by the Supreme Court of India is SUVAS (Supreme Court Vidhik Anuvaad Software), which facilitates the translation of legal documents between English and various vernacular languages.
  3. In the case of Jaswinder Singh v. State of Punjab, the Punjab & Haryana High Court put the question of the worldwide view on bail for assaults with cruelty to ChatGPT, and included the excerpt of the response from ChatGPT as a part of the order. While no reliance was placed on the response from ChatGPT itself, the excerpt was in support of the honorable court’s findings and explained that “if the assailants have been charged with a violent crime that involves cruelty, such as murder, aggravated assault, or torture, they may be considered a danger to the community and a flight risk”. [7]

AI-powered platforms have enabled law firms and corporate legal departments to enhance productivity and accuracy in legal research and contract management, including players such as Harvey AI, Leya AI, Paxton AI, DraftWise, Robin, etc., all of which use LLMs and other technologies to provide support to legal professionals to assist lawyers with drafting, negotiating, reviewing, and summarizing legal documents, and to provide more useful legal research and contract management tools.

Moreover, within the Indian Judiciary, LLMs have been employed for tasks ranging from issuing injunctions to aiding in translation and providing broader insights into legal considerations. 

These advancements underscore the growing role of AI technologies in augmenting judicial processes while maintaining clarity on their role in supporting, rather than determining, legal outcomes. As AI continues to evolve, its integration promises to further streamline legal operations and foster more informed and equitable judicial decisions.


Impact of LLM on Financial Services

The finance sector faces a deluge of data, including filings, reports, and contracts, requiring meticulous scrutiny due to the high stakes involved. Errors are not an option when handling finances. The recent integration of Large Language Models (LLMs) represents a transformative shift. LLMs have the capability to rapidly process and generate extensive text, automate repetitive tasks, and condense information into accessible formats. Functions such as fraud detection, anomaly analysis, and predictive modeling can now leverage AI and machine learning techniques effectively. 

  • Risk Assessment and Fraud Detection

Machine-learning AI models analyze large datasets in real-time to quickly spot potential fraud by learning from past data. Trained on both fraudulent and legitimate examples, these models categorize transaction patterns, improving fraud detection.

Processing insurance claims for property and casualty involves complex assessments to determine validity and cost, tasks prone to errors and time consumption. While usually requiring human judgment, LLMs can assist by summarizing damage reports.

When combined with AI systems that analyze incident images, LLMs further automate insurance claim processing, speeding up cost assessments. This saves time and money, potentially enhancing customer satisfaction, and strengthens fraud detection to ensure claims are valid and payments are secure. [8]

  • Improving Compliance and Regulatory Reporting

The financial services sector works under strict rules and regulations. Companies must follow these rules carefully to stay compliant. It’s challenging because regulations change often, so businesses must regularly update their policies and procedures to meet the latest requirements.

Automation plays a crucial role in enhancing compliance processes within banking and financial organizations by streamlining workflows, monitoring regulatory updates, and managing risk effectively. Automated systems, such as Robotic Process Automation (RPA), help banks maintain regulatory compliance by automating tasks like document verification, data entry, and compliance reporting. They also ensure that compliance procedures stay current with evolving regulations, continuously monitoring changes and triggering necessary updates. 

Automation further supports Know Your Customer (KYC) and Anti-Money Laundering (AML) compliance by automating customer due diligence and identity verification processes, enhancing fraud detection capabilities. Additionally, automated data management and reporting systems improve the accuracy and efficiency of compliance reporting, while automated audit trails enhance transparency and control over compliance activities. Lastly, automation aids in managing vendor and third-party risks by automating due diligence, risk assessments, and monitoring processes, ensuring compliance with contractual obligations and regulatory requirements. [9]


Implementation of AI in Financial Services 

  1. Companies like PayPal and Mastercard are leveraging AI to combat payment fraud effectively. PayPal, handling billions of transactions annually, employs deep learning and machine learning to analyze vast amounts of data, including customer purchase history and fraud patterns. This allows PayPal to accurately detect potential fraud instances, such as unusual account access from multiple countries in a short period. By continuously analyzing data in real-time and generating thousands of rules, PayPal maintains a low transaction-to-revenue ratio, significantly below the industry average.
  2. Similarly, Mastercard has developed its own AI model, Decision Intelligence, which uses a recurrent neural network trained on billions of transactions to predict and prevent fraudulent activities within milliseconds. This technology has substantially improved fraud detection rates across Mastercard’s network, demonstrating AI’s pivotal role in enhancing security and efficiency in the payments industry. [10]


Challenges and Considerations

  • Data Privacy and Security Concerns

The deployment of LLMs in India’s legal and financial sectors raises significant concerns regarding data privacy and security, due to the lack of any formal legislation or rule-making in relation to use of LLMs in these sectors. Furthermore, these sectors manage sensitive information such as financial records, legal documents, and personal data, necessitating stringent measures to ensure LLMs handle this information securely. While we still lack a dedicated regulation for LLMs in India, compliance with Indian data protection laws, including the Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 and existing regulations like the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021, is crucial to maintaining trust and legality.

  • Ethical Implications and Bias

LLMs trained on extensive datasets may unintentionally perpetuate biases present in Indian societal contexts. In legal applications, biased language models could influence outcomes unfairly, or create a cultural bias of overrepresentation impacting judgments based on factors such as caste, religion, or socioeconomic status. Similarly, biased algorithms in financial services could lead to discriminatory practices in lending or investment decisions. Addressing biases requires meticulous scrutiny during model development, robust testing for fairness, and ongoing monitoring to mitigate unintended consequences, aligning with Indian principles of equality and non-discrimination.

  • Need for Balanced Human Oversight

While LLMs offer automation and efficiency gains, they cannot replace human judgment in India’s legal and financial decision-making processes. These domains require nuanced understanding, ethical reasoning, and cultural sensitivity—attributes that current AI technologies may lack. Human oversight is essential to ensure LLMs are deployed ethically, interpret outcomes correctly, and intervene when necessary to prevent errors or ethical breaches. Effective oversight by a dedicated regulatory body and audits conducted by independent third parties help ensure compliance and transparency. This oversight aligns with Indian legal principles of fairness, justice, and accountability.

  • Regulatory Challenges

Integrating AI, including LLMs, into India’s legal and financial sectors must navigate complex regulatory landscapes.  Indian laws, such as the Indian Contract Act, 1872, the Banking Regulation Act, 1949, and the Reserve Bank of India’s guidelines on data protection and cybersecurity, impose stringent requirements on data handling, fairness, and transparency. Compliance with these regulations is essential to mitigate legal risks and ensure responsible AI deployment. Collaborative efforts among AI developers, legal experts, and regulatory authorities are crucial to align LLM applications with Indian regulatory frameworks effectively. Stringent guidelines that clearly define acceptable uses of LLMs, along with strict penalties for any violations, are crucial parts of the framework. 

  • Public Awareness

Public awareness campaigns and programs to improve digital literacy aim to empower citizens to navigate AI-generated content confidently. Investment in research and development, international collaboration, flexible regulations, strengthened data protection, and a comprehensive approach are all necessary steps forward.

Conclusion & Future Prospect 

In conclusion, LLMs present transformative opportunities for India’s legal and financial sectors, enhancing productivity, decision-making, and customer service. Addressing challenges such as data privacy, bias mitigation, human oversight, and regulatory compliance is paramount to realizing these benefits responsibly. In the legal domain, LLMs can automate document review, streamline contract analysis, and enhance legal research capabilities, thereby boosting efficiency and reducing costs for law firms and legal departments. This technology also holds potential in providing legal assistance to a broader segment of the population, bringing efficiency and improving access to justice. In the financial sector, LLMs can analyze vast amounts of data to aid in risk assessment, customer service automation, and predictive analytics for investment decisions. 

While LLMs bring automation and efficiency benefits, human oversight remains indispensable to mitigate these risks, ensuring that LLMs are deployed ethically, interpreting results accurately, and intervening as needed to uphold ethical standards and regulatory compliance in alignment with Indian principles of justice and accountability. Overall, while LLMs offer substantial benefits in terms of efficiency and innovation, their integration into the legal and financial sectors will require careful planning, regulatory adherence, and continuous monitoring to mitigate risks and maximize their positive impact.



[1] https://www.ey.com/en_gr/financial-services/how-artificial-intelligence-is-reshaping-the-financial-services-industry
[2] https://ashishjaiman.medium.com/large-language-models-llms-260bf4f39007
[3] https://lembergsolutions.com/blog/large-language-model-use-cases-and-implementation-insights#:~:text=As%20a%20result%20of%20such,deliver%20legal%20services%20on%20time.&text=LLMs%20can%20help%20with%20contract,chosen%20by%20a%20legal%20expert.
[4] https://lembergsolutions.com/blog/large-language-model-use-cases-and-implementation-insights#:~:text=As%20a%20result%20of%20such,deliver%20legal%20services%20on%20time.&text=LLMs%20can%20help%20with%20contract,chosen%20by%20a%20legal%20expert.
[5] https://medium.com/@social_65128/revolutionizing-legal-research-and-document-analysis-with-llms-9b1006c1add9
[6] https://www.barandbench.com/columns/unlocking-the-potential-of-large-language-models-in-artificial-intelligence-challenges-and-imperative-for-regulation
[7] https://www.barandbench.com/columns/artificial-intelligence-in-context-of-legal-profession-and-indian-judicial-system
[8] https://www.sabrepc.com/blog/deep-learning-and-ai/ai-llms-in-finance-payment
[9] https://automationedge.com/blogs/banking-compliance-automation/#:~:text=Automation%20can%20assist%20in%20automating,and%20enhancing%20fraud%20detection%20capabilities.
[10] https://www.sabrepc.com/blog/deep-learning-and-ai/ai-llms-in-finance-payment


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Last updated on
Jul 05, 2024, 3:25pm


The content of this article is for information purpose only and does not constitute advice or a legal opinion and are personal views of the author. It is based upon relevant law and/or facts available at that point of time and prepared with due accuracy & reliability. Readers are requested to check and refer to relevant provisions of statute, latest judicial pronouncements, circulars, clarifications etc. before acting on the basis of the above write up. The possibility of other views on the subject matter cannot be ruled out. By the use of the said information, you agree that the Author / Treelife is not responsible or liable in any manner for the authenticity, accuracy, completeness, errors or any kind of omissions in this piece of information for any action taken thereof.

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